T E R M I N O L O G Y
GLOSSARY OF ALPACA TERMINOLOGY
agisting - feeding or pasturing (livestock) for a fee
alpaca - a domesticated species of South American camelid
banana ears - referring to the way llamas ears come up and curve inwards similar to the shape a banana
body score - a numerical value from 1 to 9 given to an animal based on how fat or thin they are. The optimal condition is assigned a 5, emaciated is assigned a 1 and obese is assigned a 9.
bred female - a pregnant alpaca
camelid - The camel family of animals.
colostrum - the first milk produced by a female alpaca, rich in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and other components needed for the cria
conformation - manner of formation; structure; form, as of a physical entity.
cria - a baby alpaca, either male or female; the term is used until the baby is weaned
cush - the way an alpaca sets down on its stomach with its' feet tucked under the body
dam - the female parent of an alpaca
dung pile - a designated area (usually decided upon by the alpacas) where alpacas urinate and defecate; often several dung piles are created within any one field or pasture.
dust pile - a bare area on the ground in which alpacas roll or take dirt baths
fiber - the fleece of an alpaca
fiber break - wool loss on parts of the body due to stress
fiber quality male - a male alpaca whose genetic characteristics are not desirable to use for breeding; fiber males are usually gelded so there is no chance of accidental reproduction
forage - the component of the diet which is less energy dense and contains more fiber including grasses, legumes and hays
gait - a type of movement or locomotion
gallop - a three-beated gait in which all four feet are never on the ground together; the fastest camelid gait.
geld - to castrate a male alpaca
gelding - a castrated male alpaca
herdsire - a male alpaca used to breed females
huacaya - pronounced "wa-ki-a"; an alpaca with fiber that is extremely fine with the appearance of wool with a krinkle in it
huarizo - pronounced "wah-ree-soh"; a crossbreeding of a male alpaca with a female llama
macho - a male alpaca used to breed females
maiden female - a female who has not been bred to a male yet, usually because she is too young
misti - a crossbreeding of a female alpaca with a male llama
open female - a female who is not pregnant
overconditioned - an alpaca that is overweight or fat
paca - a shortened form of the word alpaca
pace - a two-beated gait in which the front and rear limbs on the same side move forward or back at the same time. It is a medium speed gait and the least stable.
pronk - The way an alpaca "trots". Similar speed to a horse trotting versus galloping. An alpaca's body moves in a front to back teeter-totter way when half-way into a run, but not yet into a full run.
roving - processed, ready to spin fiber
rumen - first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals
ruminant - a mammal that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the rumen, then regurgitating the cud and chewing it again
sire - the male parent of an alpaca
spinning - taking raw alpaca fiber and turning it into yarn
stud - a male alpaca used to breed females
suri - an alpaca with fiber that appears to be in the form of dreadlocks
topline - a common term used to refer to an alpaca's back as viewed from the side
trot - a two-beated gait in which the diagonal front and rear limbs move forward or back at the same time; a medium speed gait which is more stable
underconditioned - an alpaca that is underwieght or too thin
walk - a four-beated gait which maintains three feet in contact with the ground at any one time; the slowest of the alpaca gaits
weanling - a weaned alpaca, younger than 1 year
yearling - an alpaca between 1 and 2 years old
GLOSSARY OF DONKEY/HORSE
ass - the correct term for the animal commonly known as the donkey, burro, or jackstock; derived from the Latin term Asinus.
bald face - facial marking made up of a very wide blaze, extending to or past the eyes
barrel racing - a rodeo event in which a horse and rider attempt to complete a clover-leaf pattern around preset barrels in the fastest time
bay - a coloration of a reddish brown body color with a black mane, tail, ear edges, and lower legs
blaze - facial marking made up of a wide white stripe down the middle of the face
bray - the "voice" or "call" of a donkey; the familiar "eee-haw" sound
broodmare - a mare used for breeding
buckskin - a coloration that resembles certain shades of tanned deerskin
burro - a colloquial term for the Spanish or feral type of donkey (wild burros).
canter - a controlled, three-beat gait that averages between 10–17 mph (16–27 km/h)
colostrum - the first milk produced by a female donkey/horse, rich in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and other components needed for the foal
colt - a male horse three years old and younger
coronet - leg marking made up of white just above the hoof, around coronary band, usually no more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) above the hoof
cribbing - when a horse chews on its' surrounding pen, stall, fence, etc.
cutting - a western riding competition where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a single animal away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time
dam - the female parent of a donkey/horse
dun - a coloration with a gray-gold or tan body color ranging from sandy yellow to reddish-brown. Dun horses always have a dark stripe down the middle of their back, a tail and mane darker than the body coat, and usually darker faces and legs.
estrous - alternate form of estrus
estrus - the female "heat" cycle; in the northern hemisphere, it begins in March, and occurs every 21 to 28 days
fetlock - a hinge joint, sometimes erroneously refered to as the equivalent of the human "ankle", above the hoof that is more like the upper knuckle on the ball of a human foot - leg marking made up of a white marking that extends over the fetlock; occasionally referred to as a "boot"
filly - a female horse three years old and younger
foal - a baby donkey/horse less than one year old
gait - the way in which a horse moves
gallop - a four-beat gait that averages about 25-30 mph (40-48 km/h)
geld - to castrate a male donkey/horse
gelding - a castrated male donkey/horse
hand – a unit of measure used for equines, equal to four inches
hinny - the offspring of a female donkey and a male horse
hoof - the "foot" of a donkey/horse
horse - the official definition of a horse (for size) is 14.2 hands or taller
jack - a male donkey
jennet - a female donkey (Canadian form of jenny)
jenny - a female donkey (U.S. form of jennet)
Jerusalem donkey - also called "Sicilian" donkey; used to indicate a grayish donkey with a cross and stripe over the shoulders and back.
Laminitis – also known as ‘fever in the feet’. An inflammation of the sensitive tissue lining the inside wall of the foot. It can occur at any time of the year but more often occurs in spring with the growth of the rich, new grass.
lariat - a lasso
lasso - a loop of rope designed to be thrown around a target and tighten when pulled
mane - the line of hair along the spine of the neck
mare - an adult female horse or other equine
molly - a female mule that has estrus cycles and can carry a fetus
mule - the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse
paint - a coloration with large patches of white and any other color
palomino - a coloration of a gold coat and white mane and tail
pastern - leg marking made up of a white marking that extends above the top of the hoof, but stops below the fetlock
pony - a small horse; the official definition of a pony is a horse that measures less than 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) at the withers
quarter horse - an American breed of horse that excels at sprinting short distances
race - facial marking made up of a narrow white stripe down the middle of the face
reining - a western riding competition where riders guide the horses through a precise pattern of circles, spins, and stops
roan - a coloration with an even mixture of colored and white hairs on the body, while the head and "points" – lower legs, mane and tail – are more solid-colored
rodeo - a sport that arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later the United States, Canada, South America and Australia. It was based on the skills required of the working vaqueros and later, cowboys, in what today is the western United States, western Canada, and northern Mexico. Today it is a sporting event that consists of events that involve horses and other livestock, designed to test the skill and speed of the human athletes who participate.
she-ass - an archaic term for a female donkey, or jenny
Sicilian donkey - also called a "Jerusalem" donkey; used to indicate a grayish donkey with a cross and stripe over the shoulders and back.
snip - facial marking made up of a white marking on the muzzle, between the nostrils
sock - leg marking made up of a white marking that extends higher than the fetlock but not as high as the knee or hock; sometimes referred to as a "boot"
sorrel - a coloration referring to a copper-red shade of a chestnut colored horse
star - facial marking made up of a white marking between or above the eyes
stallion - an adult male horse
stocking - leg marking made up of a white marking that extends at least to the bottom of the knee or hock, sometimes higher
strip - facial marking made up of a narrow white stripe down the middle of the face
stripe - facial marking made up of a narrow white stripe down the middle of the face
stud - a male used for breeding
tobiano - a coloration with large patches of any non-white color with spots of white; opposite of paint coloration
trot - a two-beat gait that averages about 8 mph (13 km/h)
walk - a four-beat gait that averages about 4 mph (6.4 km/h)
wean - the process of gradually introducing a mammal infant to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk
weanling - an animal that has just been weaned
withers - the ridge between the shoulder blades of a donkey/horse
yearling - a horse between one and two years old
zebrass - the offspring of a male zebra and a female donkey
zedonk - same as zebrass
BENT RIVER ALPACAS